Hyundai Sonata Hybrid Blue Drive architecture revealed at L.A. auto show
At this years Los Angeles Auto Show, Hyundai officially revealed its hybrid car architecture, which will be used in the next generation Sonata model.
Scheduled to go on sale in 2010, the Sonata gas-electric hybrid car will feature 9 core components, such as regenerative braking system, 30kw electric motor, start-stop system that automatically shuts off the engine and turns it on again under acceleration, a breakthrough lithium-polymer battery and others (see the press release after the jump).
During its official press conference at L.A. auto event, Hyundai also announced an exciting future plan that reveals the company has set the an ambitious goal to become the most environmental friendly car manufacturer on the planet! Hyundai is confident it can meet fleet average of 35 MPG by 2015, five years ahead of US government requirements.
Hyundais says the goal can be achieved with three different types of vehicles. First, starting in 2009, Hyundai will roll out a high-mileage Accent and Elantra, which will both feature low–rolling–resistance tires, enhanced aerodynamics, revised engine calibrations and reduced final drive ratios.
Second phase includes rolling out hybrid cars, including Sonata hybrid-electric car and other hybrids. And finally, in the third phase starting in 2012, Hyundais plans to debut its first massively produced, zero emission FCEV vehicle, equipped with a hydrogen fuel-cell stack and electric motor.
Continue your read with full details of Hyundais hybrid car architecture details and information by clicking a link below.
HYUNDAI’S HYBRID BLUE DRIVE ARCHITECTURE
An all–new, homegrown hybrid architecture is at the heart of the Hyundai Blue Drive strategy. Hyundai’s proprietary parallel hybrid drive system mates the already fuel efficient 2.4–liter Theta II engine to a 6–speed automatic transmission and a 30kW (205 N–m) electric motor for maximum fuel economy.
Hybrid Blue Drive has an all–electric mode and a parallel drive mode. This means the wheels are turned by power coming directly from the gasoline engine, or the electric motor, or both together, as conditions demand. This parallel hybrid drive architecture will serve as the foundation for, starting with the next–generation Sonata in the United States.
To maximize fuel economy, all of the Theta II major driveline and cooling system components have been optimized to reduce friction, while the crankcase has been filled with low friction oil. Engine management software automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes to a halt, cutting emissions to zero.
When pressure is reapplied to the accelerator pedal, the Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) automatically restarts the engine. The Theta II’s engine management software governing injection pressure, engine cycle timing and exhaust retreatment rates has been revised to further reduce fuel consumption.
This control strategy assures that maximum efficiency is achieved during gentle acceleration and greater power is immediately available during full acceleration. During deceleration, braking regeneration comes into play.
In addition, the top three gear ratios in the transmission have been extended to ensure the engine runs at lower RPMs, the latest electric motor–assisted steering system reduces power drain and low resistance tires further optimize fuel economy.
Hyundai Hybrid Blue Drive is made up of nine major components:
1. An efficient 30kW electric motor delivering 205 N–m of torque
2. A regenerative braking system
3. An integrated starter generator that enables the engine to turn off at stops and restart automatically under acceleration
4. A breakthrough lithium polymer battery package, with 5.3 Ah of capacity at 270 volts
5. Optimized Theta II 2.4–liter engine
6. 6–speed automatic transmission with an improved efficiency electric oil pump
7. Weight–efficient architecture coupled with a low drag coefficient
8. Electric air conditioning compressor
9. Hybrid power control unit
LITHIUM POLYMER BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
Hyundai’s hybrid system stores its electrical charge in a 270V lithium polymer rechargeable battery (5.3Ah/270V) that surpasses existing nickel–metal hydride and pending lithium–ion applications. Lithium polymer batteries are more durable and space–efficient than other hybrid batteries.
Lithium Polymer Batteries vs. Nickel–Metal Hydride Batteries
Compared with nickel–metal hydride batteries, lithium polymer batteries deliver the same power with 30 percent less weight, 50 percent less volume and 10 percent greater efficiency over the nickel–metal hydride batteries found in all of today’s hybrids.
Lithium polymer batteries offer more than twice the energy density of nickel–metal hydride batteries, and 175 percent greater volumetric energy density, meaning Hyundai engineers can devote less space and weight to the battery pack.
Lithium polymer batteries also hold their charge 20 times longer. Lithium polymer batteries also are more resistant to changes in temperature, which improves cycle life. And lithium polymer’s self–discharge rate is less than a third of a nickel–metal hydride battery.
Lithium Polymer Batteries vs. Lithium–ion Batteries
Lithium–polymer has significant advantages over lithium–ion batteries, including higher energy density and lower manufacturing costs. Lithium polymer is more resistant to physical damage and can handle more charge–discharge cycles before storage capacity begins to degrade. Lithium polymer technology also offers significant advantages in thermal robustness and safety compared with typical lithium–ion batteries.
A key difference between traditional lithium ion batteries and Hyundai’s lithium polymer battery solution is the overall packaging of the cell – the anode, the cathode, the electrolyte, and the encasement material. Traditional lithium–ion batteries, like those found in laptops, use what’s known as the 18650 cell format.
In this format each mass–produced cell is 18 mm. in diameter and 65 mm. tall, which is a bit larger than a AA battery. Each of these small metal cylinders is filled with a liquid electrolyte which facilitates the movement of lithium ions across anode and cathode, creating the battery current.
Traditional lithium–ion batteries are easy to handle, can withstand mild internal pressures, and have been around in various forms since 1991. That means a manufacturing infrastructure is in place, and scale economies are reasonably high. However, they do have several disadvantages.
For example, their cylindrical shape reduces packaging efficiency and they are surprisingly complicated to manufacture since they have so many small parts. These small parts make them robust to thermal fluctuations and add significant cost and weight to the overall battery system.
Cell–to–cell consistency also is extremely critical in a vehicle battery package, since the pack is only as robust as its weakest cell. Traditional lithium–ion batteries have considerable cell–to–cell variation, while Hyunda’s lithium polymer batteries deliver outstanding cell–to–cell consistency.
Lithium polymer technology uses a completely different approach. Rather than using a liquid electrolyte, which requires a robust metal casing, lithium polymer batteries use a polymer gel as the electrolyte, which allows the use of a thinner and lighter aluminum–walled encasement, or pouch.
Inside each lithium polymer cell the cathode, separator, and anode are laminated together, enabling much simpler and more reliable manufacturing. This allows the battery pack to be about 20 percent smaller than a lithium–ion battery pack, making it much easier to change the cell footprint to fit the nooks and crannies of available vehicle space.
Hyundai has spent hundreds of hours testing Hybrid Blue Drive’s lithium polymer battery system with its battery supplier, LG Chem. This testing has proven that Hyundai’s lithium polymer technology has greater thermal and mechanical stability than existing systems, meaning better safety.
Another key engineering challenge for Hybrid Blue Drive has been assuring maintenance–free battery operation over the vehicle’s life – at least 10 years, and 150,000 miles – in all weather conditions. Heat is the enemy of battery cycle life.
Hyundai’s thermal imaging testing shows how much cooler a lithium polymer battery is compared to today´s nickel–metal hydride battery or a conventional lithium–ion battery. Consumers will notice these advantages in improved useful life and lower maintenance costs.